Selasa, 15 September 2009

School Based Exprience (Ni Khas untuk semua guru pelatih KPLI)

Assalamualaikum dan salam sejahtera.. Aku nak berkongsi sedikit daripada Pengalaman Berasakan Sekolah (SBE) untuk panduan semua guru pelatih di IPGM. Ni adalah hasilan kerja aku yang pensyarah mintak untuk hasil pemerhatian sepanjang SBE.


‘Pengalaman Berasaskan Sekolah’ (PBS) is one of the important curriculums before completing KPLI course. I was putted at Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Andrew Kuching to observed how the teachers there teached their student especially in Science subject for my Major Course, English and K.H.B for my Minor course. I came to the school for 10 days in 3 different months and different days non-continuously.

a). What I did observe from the PBS program are several types of teaching method. Some of the teacher using constructivism and some of the teacher using other method that sometimes can’t been found on the books. Maybe, teacher from that school took the technique from the pedagogy book with added some of other materials that would attract pupils attention. Some of the learning theories can’t comply with the student within this classroom especially in science subjects. For example, the teacher in this school can’t use any material regarding on usage of technology. Usually, teacher can used laptops and LCD in Set Induction phase to attract pupil’s attention. On the other way, the were using quite good technique such as asking question regarding on the last topic to get pupils to learnt and read this topic again and again at home. This is quite a good technique but wasting a lot of time. A time should consider for Set Induction is about 5 to 10 minutes only but usually they took about nearly 15 minutes to complete all question. As reward, pupils usually can be sitting down while if pupils can’t answer, they will stand up until the teacher asks them to sit down.

Science subject usually used constructivism theories. It is because it can help the pupils to discover their own theories and try to answer it by them while the teacher guides them to show the real answer. But, when the materials and facilities are unavailable, this method became hard to apply. At development state, this particular school’s science teacher usually ask the student read the science text book and try to discuss with them. Without any science lab, many of the activities conducted inside the class. Some of the experiment cannot be done because lack of materials. Sometimes, teacher only showed the experiment while the pupils managed only to see it. This is the big problems faced by this school. So, this learning theories of constructivism can comply to this school because lack of facilities.

Closure phase usually teacher took their part with it. Teacher would make the conclusion and ask the pupils to receive it without any question. Overall for this particular topic, science class used teachers centered method where teacher talk all the way. Evaluation phase conducted after all the subtopic from the syllabus have been done. Teacher took question from the exercise book and asks the pupils to do it during the class. Teacher will go to each table to mark student exercise book. Reinforcement phase; usually there is no reinforcement been done by the teacher.

Teaching instruction can’t be conducted without any learning theories. It’s because of pupils cognitive development must going each phases so that the pupils can understand more can prove any evidence using science techniques.

b). Teaching approaches is referring to a certain method doing something or dealing with certain problems. In teaching, approach means a method of attaining certain objective in a class. I found that teacher in this school usually using Inductive approach mostly. For an example Inductive approach; teacher will begins the lesson by introduced a few specific examples that contains common attributes or characteristics. Based on the examples given, pupils are guided study, analyze, interpret, and to abstract the common characteristics contained in each of the specific examples and then derive a concept or generalization. Though, sometimes teacher used deductive approach for other subjects that need to conclude the lesson.

c). Divergent question:

1. Batteries and dynamos create electrical energy. Yes or no?

2. Energy cannot be created. Yes or no?

3. Which part of a plant which responds to water?

Convergent question:

1. What are sources of electricity?

2. What are safety precautions before handling electric appliances?

3. What are the basic needs for plants?

Evaluation question:

1. State the stages include in a life cycle of a butterfly.

2. What need to be change?

3. What to keep the same?

d). Science activities inside the class mostly being conducted mostly by guided from the teacher. Sometimes, teacher used method ‘open discovery’ for certain topic that can easily being understand by the pupils for an example, plants. Pupils can easily answer each question based on their own family background. For guided activities, teacher usually guides the pupils to discover the new knowledge. It is because the pupils basically can’t understand the meaning of certain difficult science word. Need teacher helps to clarify all the meanings. Teacher can improvise their teaching method if the pupils can conquer the English Language first. The major problems for almost pupils especially in Sekolah Kebangsaan is cannot master the English Language. When this problem can be solve, then pupils can made their own discovery based on their own words.

When the level of proficiency in English low, teacher has to guide all lesson by her. Teacher has to explain whatever knowledge consists inside the topic. Teacher has to guide the pupils throughout the lesson so that the pupils can understand the important method inside the lesson. Discussion sessions can confined on children’s findings. When they are discussing with each other, pupils can interact in healthy way. Some of the children may know the answer while the others can share their findings and discuss it to prove it wrong or right. Being cooperative, that is the good scientific value for discussing.

The children are being motivate when teacher gives some sweet or chocolate for their correct answer. This kind of reward is good to attract their attention. As stated before, teacher in this school usually used ‘drill-questions technique’. Pupils may sit if they can answer teacher questions. These techniques quite good, because the pupils can revise the topic before enter the class.

e). Teacher integrate the science process skills and manipulative skills in a lesson by drill them every lesson with exercise and also by doing an experiment. Even though this school doesn’t have any laboratory, teacher usually conducted simple experiment inside the class. For certain topic, such as plant, teacher will bring along the pupils to walk around the school compound to attract the pupil’s interests.


a). Bloom’s Taxonomy chart.

Pyramid Diagram






Remembering Information

Define, duplicate, list name recall, reproduce, tell, underline

Definitions, fact chart, recitations, worksheet


Explain Information or concept

Calculate, describe, discuss, expand, explain, identify, locate, outline, report, restate

Drawing, paraphrasing, peer teaching, show and tell, story problems, summary


Use information in new ways

Classify, Demonstrate, dramatize, illustrate, practice, solve, use

Collection, interview, model building, presentation, role playing, scrap book, simulation


Distinguish different part

Appraise, compare, contrast, differentiate, distinguish, examine, infer, outline, sequence, test

Chart, plan, questionnaire, spreadsheet, summary, survey


Defend concept or idea

Appraise, dispend, dispute, editorialize, judge, justify, prioritize, rate, select, support, verify

Critique, judgment, opinion, recommendation, report, self-evaluation


Create new

Change, combine, compose, create, design, formulate, hypothesize, improve, prevent, predict

Puppet show, carton, book cover, multimedia, new game, poem, skit

From Bloom’s Taxonomy given above, when can conclude that items of school-based evaluation is based on the 4th level of the Bloom’s Taxonomy. It is because, this examination is depends on the pupils level of profiency in English. When the pupils can master English language, then the another 2 phases can be comply with examination paper for this school. Pupils should be exposed to the next level in order to produce a good pupil in Science subject especially. When pupils exposed to next level, student can make their own hypothesis based on certain subject in science lesson. Usually, this kind of method, exposed during the University learning process. Therefore, an examination should have something that can be to test their ability to comply all the method in the Bloom’s Taxonomy chart.

b). This school seems to be a poor school from my view of opinion. It is because, these school doesn’t have any school science lab. And also, it also lack of utility such as LCD, classroom and also AVA such as speaker and laptops. But, the Headmaster and the teacher managed to solved the weakness in every part of the school so that the pupils should get a good result for their UPSR examinations. Maybe also this school is rich with other things such as pupils attitude. With pupils nowadays, these school should provide all those particular things regarding on the Audio Visual Aids so that the pupils can share the technology inside the school compound. AVA are used to show and hear something that can’t be shown on the real world. So, it is important to use technology in teaching and learning process in order to attract pupil attention.

c). Inventory record books are kept in the Head subjects room in the teachers room. When the science teacher wants to use any inventories that are kept inside the cabinet, they have to ask the Head-subject teacher and record the using of any inventories inside it. As I told before, there is no science lab in this school. All the materials are kept inside the teacher room,

d). There are no chemical kept inside the teacher room. Materials are kept inside cabinet inside the teacher room.

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